Spinal stenosis at different levels is a narrowing of the spinal canal in one or more areas of the spine, most often in the upper or lower divisions. Such narrowing can cause compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots emanating from the spinal cord. The causes of spinal stenosis can be divided into two groups: congenital and acquired.
With congenital are associated stenosis related with such diseases as mucopolysaccharidosis, vitamin B- resistant rickets, achondroplasia, congenital malformation of the vertebrae and the spinal canal, various types of dysplasia, Down's syndrome.
Causes of acquired stenosis:
- herniated discs ossified;
- iatrogenic stenosis - the formation of subarachnoid adhesions and / or post-operative scars, ‘steel stenosis’ - implantation of metal structures in the hole between the vertebral or radicular canal;
- ankylosing spondylitis;
- Forestier's disease (or diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis of rheumatoid nature);
- ossification and hypertrophy of the yellow ligament;
- spondylolisthesis of degenerative-dystrophic genesis;
- deforming spondylarthrosis with the formation of marginal osteophytes and hypertrophy of intervertebral joints.
Spinal stenosis at the lumbar level can be divided into:
- central stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal itself, which houses the spinal cord and a caudaequina - a lot of roots that innervate the lower limbs and pelvic organs)
- foraminal stenosis (narrowing of the foraminal hole through which the nerve roots exit the spinal column)
- combined forms
These kinds of stenosis exhibit different symptoms:
Most often when the central spinal canal stenosis patients complain of pain, heaviness and weakness in the legs and lumbar region arising from prolonged standing or walking. When foraminal stenosis (narrowing of the opening through which the nerve exits the spine) the clinical picture of radicular pain is developing - there appears a non-mechanically lampas pain in the lower limbs, in neglected cases joins radiculopathy - sensitivity reduction and paresis of the muscles in the area of innervation of the affected spine appear.
Methods of treatment