Spondylolisthesis is anterior displacement of the vertebra as a result of spondylolysis (congenital vertebral arch non-union with its body) or degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc.
Spondylolisthesis occurs most frequently in the cervical and lumbar spine having greater mobility and experiencing a vertical load greaterthan the thoracic spine. According to the causes of the disease, spondylolisthesis is divided into five types :
- dysplasticspondylolisthesis (the most rare type of congenital abnormalities) - a malformation of the sacral vertebrae and the base of the fifth lumbar vertebra (defect of the arc feet vertebra);
- isthmicor spondylicspondylolisthesis (spondylolysis) - triggered by an overgrowth of connective scar tissue at the site of uncoossified foot or vertebral arch stress fracture (fractured due to prolonged excessive loads, overstretching during exercising);
- degenerative (involution) spondylolisthesis - arthritic changes in the joints of the vertebrae, stretching, thinning, degeneration of the intervertebral disc (low back pain), usually in the elderly age;
- traumaticspondylolisthesis - straight spine injuries, a fracture of the vertebra foot or plate arc or facet joint;
- pathologicalspondylolisthesis - a defect in the bone caused by the tumor.
Lumbar level - local pain, which intensify at loads and are distributed in the legs, impaired sensitivity and weakness in the legs, pelvic organ dysfunction, gait disturbance.
Cervical level - local pain, which intensify at loads and are distributed into the hands, numbness and weakness in the hands, dizziness. In some cases, there may be a violation of the movements in the legs and dysfunction of the pelvic organs.
Methods of treatment
- Subcutaneous (percutaneous) transpedicular fixation of the spine
- Dynamic stabilization of the spine
- Decompressive-stabilizing operations with the use of pedicle designs, interbody cages and other implants