Arteriovenous fistula of cerebrospinal blood vessels - abnormal connection between an artery and a vein in which the blood moves, bypassing the capillary network.
There are several reasons for the development of arteriovenous fistula. Some of them are inherent and associated with mutations in the genes responsible for the normal growth of blood vessels. They can occur in certain hereditary diseases, such as disease Rendu - Osler -Weber.
Acquired fistula are formed in trauma adjacent to each other arteries and veins (eg, missile wound or stabbing, surgery, biopsy of the body). The fistula usually formed immediately or within a few hours after vascular injury. Sometimes the fistula is created by artificial means , such as hemodialysis to avoid repeated puncture of vessels during each procedure.
Fistula, located in the brain cause a wide range of symptoms. Among them - the headache, pulsating noise in the ear, the frequency of which coincides with the pulse, blurred vision and eye movements, eye redness. With the development of hemorrhage there appear severe headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Subsequently, the function of the brain and cranial nerves can be disrupted, manifested paralysis , impaired speech , gait , and memory.
Congenital arteriovenous fistula usually show severe cosmetic defects (purple colored adjacent skin and unsightly appearance)
If a large arteriovenous fistula is not treated in time , the large volume of blood under pressure from the artery enters the vein. The wall of the vein , in turn, is not as strong as the artery and blood flow under the influence of high pressure expands Vienna , its wall is damaged , which in turn contributes to the development of varicose veins, and thrombosis. As a result of arteriovenous dumping large amounts of systemic arterial blood pressure is reduced , the compensatory increases heart rate and cardiac output , which over time can lead to heart failure .
methods of treatment
- Microsurgical resection of vascular anomalies (AVM, arteriovenous fistulas)
- Endovascular embolization of vascular lesions (arteriovenous malformations, arteriovenous fistulas) adhesive components.