Arteriovenous malformations of cerebrospinal vessels.
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM ) - are non-hereditary congenital abnormality of the vascular system of the brain and are of different shape and size of coils formed as a result of random weave abnormal vessels . In the arteriovenous malformations, most often, there is arteriolovenular bridge, which is a direct result of shunting of blood from the blood pool in the superficial and deep veins. It leads to the formation of two bloodsystems - through the normal brain vessels and vasculature malformations, with the blood supply normal brain tissue is reduced, which leads to an increase in degenerative and ischemic events in the brain.
Over time, AVM shaped aneurysm. AMS is most often seen in the brain, but it can also occur in the spinal cord. AVM begins to develop during the fetal stage. With age, it grows unpredictably.
- Intracranial hemorrhage, the most common symptom;
- Seizures occur in 20% -25% of cases;
- Headache. Headaches are a common symptom, appearing in about 15% of cases.
- Muscle weakness;
- Paralysis (loss of movement) of the body;
- Inability to perform purposeful movements - apraxia;
- Loss of coordination, especially when walking - ataxia;
- An abnormal sound of blood flow. This sound, also called the noise can be determined using a stethoscope. It is caused by an extremely rapid flow of blood through the arteries and veins in the arteriovenous malformation;
- Sudden, severe pain in the back;
- The difficulties of pronunciation or understanding speech;
- Loss of sensations (hearing, taste, tactile sensation);
- Visual disturbances;
- Loss of memory;
- Difficulty thinking or mental confusion;
Arteriovenous malformations can seriously damage the brain and spinal cord due to:
- Reduction of the amount of oxygen reaching the brain;
- Appearance bleeding (hemorrhage) in tissues outside of the nervous system, including brain and spinal cord);
- Squeezing or shift part of the brain or spinal cord.Артериовенозные мальформации могут серьезно повредить головной и спинной мозг по причине:
Complications: Bleeding in the brain occurs when the wall of the dilated vessel ruptures or when the AVM aneurysm bursts. Such bleeding is life-threatening. A quarter of all patients suffering from any kind of bleeding, dying, and every third becomes disabled. The annual risk of recurrence when microbleeds AVM is about 4%. However, some AVMs never bleed. The highest risk of hemorrhage covers those aged 40 - 55 years.
Methods of treatment:
- Microsurgical resection of AVM
- Endovascular embolization of AVM adhesive components