The Department of Brain Neurosurgery has a capacity of 20 beds. The department was created to provide highly specialized medical care to patients with tumors of the central nervous system (benign and malignant tumors of the brain of the supra and subtentorial localization, tumors of the chiasmatic-sellar region, tumors of the brain stem and base of the skull, metastatic lesions of the central nervous system, congenital and acquired brain cysts) , as well as patients with hydrocephalus, abscess and parasitic lesions of the brain and defects in the bones of the cranial vault, for the introduction of scientific advances, advanced technologies and standards in neurosurgery.
In the Department of Brain Neurosurgery, the development and improvement of surgical approaches, tactical techniques and methods for removing brain tumors is being carried out, ensuring the preservation of adequate blood supply and brain functions, including in the case of hard-to-reach parastem localization. Particular attention is focused on improving the approaches, tactics and techniques of surgical treatment of the most complex and common neuro-oncological pathology:
basal meningiomas of various localization and distribution;
neurinomas of the VIII nerve;
gliomas of the brain GI - GIV;
tumors of the ventricles of the brain and pineal region;
hydrocephalus of various etiologies;
arachnoid and other cysts of the brain.
secondary brain tumors.
tumors of the bones of the base and vault of the skull.
Employees of the Department of Brain Neurosurgery have received 3 patents for inventions only in the last 5 years. 3 Ph.D. theses have been defended, work is underway on the release of 2 monographs, 2 methodological recommendations. They are members of the Society of Neurosurgeons of Kazakhstan, the European Society of Neurosurgeons.
The introduction into practice of new diagnostic methods, new surgical approaches and techniques, methods of treatment has made it possible to significantly improve the results of treatment of neurooncological patients.
The use of modern microsurgical techniques gives positive results in the treatment of tumors of the third ventricle, pineal gland, subcortical structures, and the brain stem. When removing tumors located in functionally important areas of the brain, we widely use the intraoperative neuronavigation system. Also, for tumors of the base of the skull, pituitary adenomas, we use endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal access. At present, this access is the main access for the removal of tumors of the base of the skull and brain, that is, neoplasms located in a hard-to-reach and dangerous area, where the great vessels and branches of the cranial nerves pass. These are tumors such as pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngeomas, chordomas, skull base cancer, angiofibromas, meningiomas and others. This method is minimally invasive, since it involves an extracerebral approach, the risk of damage to the brain tissue is minimized. This, in turn, leads to a shortening and a decrease in the severity of the course of the postoperative period. The percentage of postoperative complications decreases.
Treatment of patients is carried out according to the principles of minimally invasiveness, minimal trauma and respect for the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. For this purpose, the following techniques are used:
1. Microsurgical removal of brain tumors using an intraoperative navigation system
2. Microsurgical removal of brain tumors using intraoperative neuromonitoring
3. Microsurgical removal of hard-to-reach tumors of the skull base using combined approaches and intraoperative neuromonitoring, endoscopic assistance
4. Biopsy of brain tumors using a stereotaxic system
5. Endoscopic biopsy of brain tumors
6. Endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal removal of brain and skull base tumors using an intraoperative neuronavigation system
7. Implantation of the shunt system for hydrocephalus of various etiology
8. Endoscopic ventriculocisternostomy for hydrocephalus of various etiology
Head of the Department is Nurzhan Ryskeldiev, neurosurgeon of the highest qualification category. Awards and achievements: Excellence in Healthcare of the Republic of Kazakhstan (2010). Winner of the title "The best doctor of the National Center for Neurosurgery JSC 2009". Author of over 40 publications, 2 inventions.